Saturday, August 23, 2014

Princeton University


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Princeton University
Princeton shield.svg
Latin: Universitas Princetoniensis
Motto Deī sub nūmine viget (Latin)
Motto in English Under God's Power She Flourishes[1]
Established 1746
Type Private
Endowment $18.2 billion[2]
President Christopher L. Eisgruber
Academic staff 1,172
Admin. staff 1,103
Students 8,010
Undergraduates 5,336[3]
Postgraduates 2,674
Location Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Campus Suburban, 500 acres (2.0 km2)
(Princeton Borough and Township)[4]
Former names College of New Jersey (1746–1896)
Colors Orange and black         
Athletics 38 varsity teams
Ivy League
NCAA Division I
Nickname Tigers
Affiliations MAISA, AAU
Princeton U logotype.png
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution as well as the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies.[5][a] The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later where it was renamed as a University in 1896.[10] The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination[11] and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.[b]
Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering.[13] It does not have schools of medicine, law, divinity, education, or business, but it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.[c] Princeton has been associated with 37 Nobel laureates, 17 National Medal of Science winners, two Abel Prize winners, eight Fields Medalists (more so than any other university), nine Turing Award laureates, three National Humanities Medal recipients and 201 Rhodes Scholars.
By endowment per student, Princeton is the wealthiest school in the United States.[14]


Sculpture by J. Massey Rhind (1892), Alexander Hall, Princeton University
New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, in 1746 in order to train ministers.[15] The college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1756, the college moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal house of William III of England.
Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college.[16] Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it.
Albert Einstein with Thomas Mann in Princeton, 1938
In 1812, the eighth president of Princeton (still the College of New Jersey), Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish a theological seminary next door.[17] The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".[18] Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access.[19][20]
Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754.[21] During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers.[22] Nassau Hall's iconic bell rang after the hall’s construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855.[citation needed]
James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus.[23] McCosh Hall is named in his honor.[22]
In 1879, the first thesis for a Ph.D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877.
In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university.
In 1900, the Graduate School was established.[24]
In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, is elected the 13th president of the university.[25] Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie.[24] A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton's campus.[26]
On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated.[24]
In 1919 the School of Architecture was established.[24]
In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until their own campus was finished and opened in 1939. This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the university, one that has never been completely eradicated.

Coeducation at Princeton University

Alexander Hall, Princeton University
In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school's operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study "critical languages" in which Princeton's offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.
As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton's eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn's appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied.[27] In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of “Old Nassau” to reflect the school's co-educational student body. [28]


Fine Hall, the home of the Department of Mathematics.
The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km2) in Princeton. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States.[29] The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township.[4] The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia.
The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756, and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street.[22] The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century.[30][31] The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place.[32] At the end of the 19th century Princeton adopted the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today.[33] Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter[33] and later enforced by the University's supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram,[34] the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960.[35][36] A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received.[37] Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library),[38] I.M. Pei (Spelman Halls),[39] Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project),[40] Robert Venturi (Frist Campus Center, among several others),[41] and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).[42]
A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval With Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman).[43] Richard Serra's The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.[44]
At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie, a man-made lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake's construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus.[45] Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered "not gentlemanly."[46] The Shea Rowing Center on the lake's shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.[47]

Cannon Green

Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the "Big Cannon," which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick.[48] In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.[49]
A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton.[50] The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.[51][52]
In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. The next bonfire happened on Sunday, 24 November 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet.[53]


Nassau Hall

Main article: Nassau Hall
Nassau Hall from the front.
East Pyne Hall, Princeton University
Rear view of Little Hall Tower, Princeton University
Foulke/Henry Halls at Princeton University
1903 Hall Courtyard, Princeton University
Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756,[22] it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776,[54] was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777,[22] and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783 to November 4, 1783.[55] It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus.[56] The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879.[22] Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather.[57] In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[58]

Residential colleges

Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, Wilson College and Forbes College (formerly Princeton Inn College), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university's sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.
Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton's Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories.
Wilson and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. Wilson served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the "New New Quad") before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including "waffle ceilings", the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen.
Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years.[59] Forbes currently houses over 400 undergraduates and a number of resident graduate students in its residential halls.
In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton's sixth residential college that same year.
The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Oxford University and Cambridge University. Wilson's model was much closer to Yale's present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alum, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale.
Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the College; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed.[59] The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College departs in its design from Collegiate Gothic; it is reminiscent of the former dormitories of Butler College, the newest of the five pre-Whitman residential colleges.

McCarter Theatre

Main article: McCarter Theatre
McCarter Theater
The Tony-award-winning[60] McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States.

Art Museum

The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.
Numbering over 72,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol's Blue Marilyn.
One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of Pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture.

University Chapel

Princeton University Chapel
The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of US$2.3 million,[61] approximately US$31.6 million in 2013 dollars. Ralph Adams Cram, the University's supervising architect, designed the Chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus.[62] At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King's College Chapel, Cambridge.[63] It underwent a two-year, US$10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.[64]
Measured on the exterior, the Chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high.[65] The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim.[66] The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages.[67] The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.[62]
The Chapel seats almost 2,000.[68] It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services,[69] daily Roman Catholic mass,[70] and several annual special events.

Murray Dodge Hall

Murray Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray Dodge Cafe, the Muslim Prayer Room, and the Interfaith Prayer Room.[71] The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden,[72] and a number of university chaplains, including the country's first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country's first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan.[73]

Apartment facilities

Princeton university has several apartment facilities for graduate students and their dependents. They are Butler Apartments, Lawrence Apartments, and Stanworth Apartments.[74]


Published in 2008, Princeton's Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University's Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement.[75] Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 without the purchase of offsets.[76] The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009.[77] The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics.[78] Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 20% sustainable food products.[79] The student organization "Greening Princeton" seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.[80]


The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University's endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.
With an endowment of US$17.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university has the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over US$2 million for undergraduates).[81] Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers.[82] Some of Princeton's wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists.


The courtyard of East Pyne
Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.).
The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in all disciplines.[83] It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master's degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice.


Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a "precept." To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as "junior papers." Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.
Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student's suspension or expulsion.[84] The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students' academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall.[85][86] Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline.[87] Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.[88]

Admissions and financial aid

Princeton's undergraduate program is highly selective, admitting 7.28% of undergraduate applicants in the 2013-2014 admissions cycle (for the Class of 2018).[89] In September 2006, the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool. In this way, the early decision program was effectively ended.[90] In February 2011, following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs, Princeton announced it would institute an early action program, starting with applicants for the Class of 2016.[91] In 2011, The Business Journal rated Princeton as the most selective college in the Eastern United States in terms of admission selectivity.[92]
In 2001, expanding on earlier reforms, Princeton became the first university to eliminate loans for all students who qualify for financial aid.[93] All demonstrated need is met with combinations of grants and campus jobs. In addition, all admissions are need-blind.[94] U.S. News & World Report and Princeton Review both cite Princeton as the university that has the fewest of graduates with debt even though 60% of incoming students are on some type of financial aid.[95] Kiplinger magazine ranks Princeton as the best value among private universities, noting that the average graduating debt is US$4,957, "about one fifth the average debt of students who borrow at all private schools".[96]

Grade deflation policy

In 2004, Nancy Weiss Malkiel, the Dean of the College, implemented a grade deflation policy to curb the number of A-range grades undergraduates received.[97] Malkiel's argument was that an A was beginning to lose its meaning as a larger percentage of the student body received them.[97] While the number of A's has indeed decreased under the policy, many argue that this is hurting Princeton students when they apply to jobs or graduate school.[97] Malkiel has said that she sent pamphlets to inform institutions about the policy so that they consider Princeton students equally,[97] but students argue that Princeton graduates can apply to other institutions that know nothing about it. They argue further that as other schools purposefully inflate their grades,[98] Princeton students' GPAs will look low by comparison. Further, studies have shown that employers prefer high grades even when they are inflated.[99] The policy remained in place even after Malkiel stepped down at the end of the 2010–2011 school year. The policy deflates grades only relative to their previous levels; indeed, as of 2009, or five years after the policy was instituted, the average graduating GPA saw a marginal decrease, from 3.46 to 3.39.[100]


This watercolor shows Cleveland Tower as seen from just outside Procter Hall at the Old Graduate College in the noon autumn sun.
The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences, engineering, natural sciences, and humanities. In 2012–13, it received over 11,000 applications for admission and awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final masters degrees. Princeton has no medical school, law school, or business school. (A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture, engineering, finance, and public policy, the last through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and US President) Woodrow Wilson.


The university's library system houses over eleven million holdings[101] including seven million bound volumes.[102] The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world.[103] Additionally, it is among the largest "open stack" libraries in existence. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan’s Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and University archives, and the sciences. In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources. In February 2007, Princeton became the 12th major library system to join Google's ambitious project to scan the world's great literary works and make them searchable over the Web.[104]